RECOMMENDATIONS: VITAMINS, MINERALS & TRACE ELEMENTS
Authors: Stephen B. Strum M.D.; see also Latest
Concepts of Nutrition
Beta Carotene: In the last few years increasing
numbers of reports have suggested that the use of Beta Carotene may act
to prevent the development of various malignancies. Beta Carotene and other
similar compounds have differentiating properties that appear to affect
cell growth and maturation. Beta Carotene is not toxic to the liver even
in high doses in contrast to Vitamin A. Large doses of Beta Carotene will
increase the body's demands for Vitamin E; therefore, those of you on 50,000
to 100,000 units of beta carotene per day will need to also increase your
vitamin E to 1,000 to 2,000 units per day. The definitive role of beta
carotene/vitamin E is yet to be understood, but there is sufficient reason
to use beta carotene in a dose of 50,000 units per day. There is no need
to supplement this with carrot juice or vitamin A. Beta carotene, like
vitamin A and E is stored in the liver. Current clinical trials in prevention
of cervix cancer and cancer of the lung and breast are using beta carotene.
This may also be helpful in the prevention of colon cancer and melanoma.
VITAMIN E: Please read the above. Vitamin E is an
important anti-oxidant. It acts as a free radical scavenger to prevent
the byproducts of chemical-cell interaction to cause cell damage. Free
radicals are likely responsible for all or most of the degenerative diseases
e.g. arthritis, heart disease, cancer, senility etc. The absorption or
scavenging of free radicals would protect our cells from this type of injury.
Other free radical scavengers include zinc, vitamin C, and selenium.
Studies have reported vitamin E to protect against
some of the toxicities of ionizing radiation. Vitamin E may help to decrease
the toxicity of certain chemotherapy drugs. Adriamycin is an important
anti-cancer drug with potential major toxicity to the heart. The use of
1000 to 2,000 units of vitamin E per day may help to decrease this toxicity.
Vitamin E may decrease some of the harmful effects of solar radiation on
the skin. As cited above it works well in conjunction with beta carotene.
Vitamin E appears to have stabilizing effect on the vascular system and
is useful in decreasing menopausal and premenstrual symptoms. It is useful
in decreasing leg cramps occurring especially at night. Vitamin E can be
used in lotions or creams to protect the skin or to treat for burns. It
is also helpful to treat burns secondary to radiation therapy. I have also
used it with good results in patients with dermatitis resulting from poor
blood circulation i.e. stasis dermatitis. It is commonly prescribed for
topical use in pregnant women to prevent stretch marks on the abdomen.
More recently it has been used to prevent or treat mucositis resulting
from chemotherapy. I advise patients to bite into a 1000 unit capsule and
swish the vitamin E around the mouth and over the mucous membranes lining
the cheeks. This is done three to four times a day. You can also use liquid
vitamin E to do this.
Link to: Vitamins
B COMPLEX: The B complexes are important membrane
stabilizers. They are natural tranquilizers or anti-stress vitamins because
of this property. They are important vitamins to help nerve function. The
B complex vitamins contain PABA which is important in protecting the skin
against the harmful effects of Ultra-violet radiation. PABA is an excellent
UV screening agent and helps to protect against the development of skin
cancer or sun-induced skin damage e.g. wrinkling and solar keratoses. Fair
complexioned people should avoid sun exposure and should use sun- blockers
with at least a 15 factor as well as use B complex orally. Such people
are actinic or sun sensitive and are at a greater risk for the development
of skin cancers of all types. People with red hair, blue or green eyes
tend to be sun sensitive (actinic sensitive). Women using oral contraceptives
increase their utilization of the B vitamins and need to supplement their
diet with B complex. Patient under high stress should do the same. The
B vitamins are water soluble. They are not stored in the body as are beta
carotene and vitamin E. B complex must be taken with food already in the
stomach. If taken on an empty stomach, pain and nausea are not uncommon.
The use of B complex in a dose of 100 mg once to three times a day with
meals is recommended per patient tolerance. If the B complex is being absorbed
the urine will be bright yellow and have a pungent smell due to the riboflavonoids
present. This is to be expected and should not cause alarm. If no change
in urine color is noted then suspect that your brand of B complex is not
being absorbed by your body- change brands.
Link to: Vitamins
VITAMIN C: This vitamin is important for tissue healing.
Patients with peptic ulcers will heal faster on vitamin C than those without
extra vitamin C. As mentioned previously, vitamin C is an anti-oxidant.
It is also water soluble as B complex. I advise that it be used in doses
of 2,000 to 6,000 mg after each meal to take advantage of its anti-oxidant
effects. I would start with 1,000 mg after each meal and increase slowly
up to 6,000 mg after each meal. Side-effects of large doses include diarrhea
and flatulence. Studies in Canada show a decrease number of colon polyps
in patients taking high doses of vitamin C. Such polyps are precursors
for colon cancer. If we can decrease polyp formation with vitamin C perhaps
we can decrease colon cancer as well. The use of vitamin C in this capacity
should accompany a very low fat diet that is high in dietary fiber. Smoking
and alcohol consumption will increase the excretion of vitamin C. Alcohol
will actually deplete all of the water soluble vitamins. Vitamin C has
been touted by Pauling and Cameron to decrease cancer growth and cause
remissions in cancer patients. I have not seen any evidence in all of the
studies published to warrant that conclusion. The studies published by
Pauling and Cameron were scientifically unsound and poorly controlled.
Major trials using high dose I.V. vitamin C fail to confirm any anti- cancer
effect of this vitamin in patients with established cancer.
High dose vitamin C may be a problem in patients with a tendency
to kidney stone formation. Check with your physician if this is your situation.
Please note that the recommendations made here are based
on medical reports and on personal observations. Many of these reports
are viewed with skepticism by members of the medical profession. If you
review the recommendations made in the 1981 handout you will note that
at that time most of the suggestions regarding dietary modifications and
vitamins and trace elements would be laughed at. Today, many if not all,
of these suggestions are considered good medicine.
In patients receiving iron supplements to help treat
iron deficiency, the use of vitamin C taken at the same time as the iron
medicine will greatly enhance the absorption of iron. Vitamin C will help
with wound healing and healing of burns. It improves the strength of the
walls of the blood vessels and may help decrease the easy bruising seen
with some patients. Vitamin C in topical form to prevent sunburn and to
absorb the ultraviolet rays will soon be available.
Vitamin C may help people with low back pain and
arthritis due to its anti- oxidant effects. This and other vitamins need
to be taken over long periods of time. These substances work over time
-- be patient.
SELENIUM: This is an anti-oxidant with activity as
a free radical scavenger. Populations with high blood selenium levels are
found to have lower death rates due to cancer. Mormons have high selenium
blood levels perhaps related to their diet. Cancer patients have low selenium
blood levels. Selenium works in harmony with vitamin E. Selenium toxicity
can occur and the dose of selenium should be close to 100 MICROGRAMS (not
milligrams) per day.
CALCIUM-MAGNESIUM: Calcium is deficient in most of
our diets. This deficiency is most prevalent in women who have had children
and have never supplemented their own diets with calcium. Calcium consumption
along with exercise is the best means to prevent calcium deficiency. Once
calcium is lost and signs of osteopenia develop the medical problem may
be hard to reverse. Collapse of bone and fractures commonly of the pelvis
may occur in such individuals. When people "shrink" with age it is due
to vertebral compression fractures caused by osteopenia, commonly referred
to as osteoporosis. Bone density studies will detect patients having osteopenia.
Calcium, like B complex acts as a membrane stabilizer and natural tranquilizer
as does magnesium and potassium. Calcium and magnesium should be taken
together in a ratio of 2:1. A daily intake of Calcium of 1,000 to 1,500
mg is reasonable. Calcium/magnesium may be taken at bedtime to promote
sleep. Magnesium in the form of magnesium oxide in combination with vitamin
B-6 has been shown to dissolve certain types of kidney stones (calcium
oxalate stones). This preparation is called Beelith and is taken twice
a day. It is also helpful in patients with chronic constipation since magnesium
salts act as cathartics. During pregnancy the intake of calcium and magnesium
should be increased to prevent deficiency in mother and child. Patients
with potassium deficiency should always be checked for magnesium deficiency.
In the presence of magnesium depletion, it is very difficult to replete
potassium stores. I have used a calcium citrate source containing vitamin
D to enhance calcium absorption. This is an effervescent formulation and
it is taken as two tablets dissolved in a glass of cold water per day.
Calcium citrate is better absorbed and utilized than calcium carbonate.
The use of fluoride in a liquid formulation (potassium fluoride 180 mg/cc)
help bind calcium in the bones. Fluoride drops are taken as 1 drop in juice
or water three times per day. This is a prescription item and must be made
up by the pharmacist. The dose can be slowly increased per the physician.
Fluoride in this concentration can irritate the gastric lining. Slow increases
in dose are important to prevent this side-effect.
ZINC: This element is important in wound healing.
It also functions as an anti- oxidant. It is helpful in the treatment of
acne. It hastens healing of peptic ulcer disease and burns. The recommended
dose is 100 mg per day. Chelated zinc will not cause the gastrointestinal
distress the inorganic zinc will. Therefore, request a chelated zinc rather
than zinc sulfate.
Stephen B. Strum M.D.